An Inheritance of Ghosts

Beverly Earl Mattocks and Gladys “Opal” Deema Danner

Beverly Earl Mattocks [4]

Father: Walter Andrew Mattocks [8]

Mother: Rachel Idella Crane [9]

Mattocks Family Heritage entry

Gladys “Opal” Deema Danner [5]

Father: Elisha Michael Danner [10]

Mother: Martha Minary Hough [11]

Mattocks Family Heritage entry


Beverly Earl Mattocks [4] was born in 25 July 1891 at Earl Park, Benton County, Indiana.  In June 1900, Beverly, aged 9, was attending school and living with his parents at Lake Township, Newton County, Indiana.  In April 1910, Beverly, a farm laborer aged 18, was living with his parents at Pleasant Township, Porter County, Indiana.

On 25 September 1913, Beverly, of Kankakee, Kankakee County, Illinois, was issued a barber’s license by the Barbers State Board of Examiners of Illinois.  Beverly apparently spent time with his sister Hattie Leverenz and her daughter Lola (born in 1913), perhaps at Danville, Vermilion County, Illinois, before the Leverenz family moved to Montana (where they lived until 1917).

By about 1916, Beverly and three of his brothers (including Carl and Jimmy) had moved to Bates County, Missouri, where the young men worked constructing levees on the Marais des Cygnes River.  Beverly married, as her second husband, 20 December 1917, at Bates County, Gladys “Opal” Deema (Danner) Vickers [5].  Beverly and Gladys had met in Bates County.

Gladys was born 28 December 1897 at Liberty, Clay County, Missouri, the daughter of Elisha Michael and Martha Minary (Hough) Danner.  In June 1900, Gladys, aged 2, was living with her parents at Liberty Township, Clay County, Missouri.  In April 1910, Gladus D., aged 12, was living with her widowed mother on South[?] Hickory[?] Street in the third ward of Butler, Mount Pleasant Township, Bates County.  At that time, Gladys was working as a servant and attending school.  The census of 1910 recorded that Gladys had not worked during 36 weeks of the previous year.

Gladys married first, probably 18 September 1914, James Vickers.  If, as seems possible, he was the same person as the James Vickers in the 1920 census of Butler, he was born about 1893 in Missouri.

Daughter Helen Allene was born to James and Gladys in September 1916 at Rich Hill, Bates County.  The couple divorced soon thereafter.

In January 1920, a James Vickers, a farm laborer, aged 27, was living in the household of his widowed sister Anna Wilson at Butler.  Though of the right age and place to have been Gladys’s first husband, the census of 1920 did not record that James was divorced, but merely “single”.  The whereabouts at this time of Helen Allene Vickers, the daughter of James and Gladys, is not known, but she did not seem to be living with either parent.

James Vickers married second, by about 1929, —— ——.  By this wife, James had son Leroy Paul Vickers, born 10 April 1929 at Independence, Missouri, died 23 October 2002 at Independence, married Beverly A. ——.

Beverly served in World War I.  Later in life, he was a member of the American Legion.

Son Carl recalled that “[w]e lived a nomadic existence between Bates County, MO and Jasper County, IN.” At least for one period of time, the Mattocks family lived in the area of Wheatfield, Jasper County, Indiana.

Beverly and Gladys were living at Rich Hill, Bates County, when son Beverly Earl was born prematurely in May 1918 (the infant died the same day).  Beverly and Gladys’s son Carl was born in November 1919 at Parr, Jasper County, Indiana.

In 1920, Beverly, an excavator[?], aged 27, Gladys, aged 22, and Carl were living with Beverly’s parents at or near Parr in South Union Township.  Son Earl was born in April 1921 at Parr.  Son Donald was born in October 1923 in Indiana.

Beverly and Gladys were apparently back at Rich Hill by about October 1925, when their deceased infant daughter Norma was buried there.  Norma had been born in May 1925, presumably at Bates County.

Daughter Mary was born in 1926 in Missouri.  Son Walter was born in September 1928 at Kansas City, Jackson County, Missouri.  In December 1928, when little Walter died, Beverly and Gladys were living at 39 Raytown Road at Kansas City, Jackson County, Missouri.  Walter was buried at Rich Hill.  Dorothy McCullough remembered when one of the Mattocks infants died in Kansas City, “& my mother held it in a casket on her lap from K.C. to R.H. for the funeral.”

Dorothy also recalled that Beverly worked on a dredge boat in Bates County, changing the river channel.  Dorothy wrote: “My parents brought my brother & I down weekends & we camped out & visited.  We really enjoyed it.”

Son Glenn (Pat) was born in October 1929 in Missouri.

In April 1930, “Beverly Mattox,” an excavating engineer, aged 38, was living with his wife Gladys, aged 33, Gladys’s daughter Helen, and five children of Beverly and Gladys, on Nebraska Street in Rock Port, Clay Township, Atchison County, Missouri.  It would appear from the census that Beverly had been unemployed for a time in the period before April 1930.

In April 1932, the family settled on the Wabash River in Illinois or Indiana.  Apparently the family was at Roselawn, Newton County, Indiana, when a young son died there in the winter of 1932.  Niece Lola Leverenz recalled spending time with Beverly and Gladys “& kiddies.”  She recalled that “Uncle Bev [was] good to me — a big tease!”  Lola wrote of her time with her sisters living with Beverly’s parents:

Every summer before school was out, Grandpa would go out along the Kankakee River scouting for a campsite.  It would not be a fancy cottage.  Sometimes it would be just one room downstairs and up a ladder to one room upstairs, or often no cottage at all, just an area for tents.  There would be a large one for sleeping and another for storage.

Grandpa would clear the land by the riverbank, making stacks and stacks of firewood, and then spade the soil to plant a big garden.  When he had erected our table and benches under a canopy and had a big grate ready for cooking, he would get his boat ready for fishing.

After the end of the school year, the uncles [possibly including Beverly] would load up Grandma and us girls along with the grocery staples, dishes, pots and pans, bedding, and clothes.  Then off we’d go to join Grandpa on the banks of the river.

Son Chauncey was born in April 1934 at Flat Rock, Crawford County, Illinois.  The Mattocks family was recorded at Heathsville, Crawford County, Illinois, when son Paul was born and died there in the spring of 1935.  Heathsville is few miles east of Flat Rock.  Son Carl described the family home’s location as “South of Palestine and East of Flat Rock, IL, a few miles East of a small crossroads known as Heathsville.”  During this time, Beverly worked as “a buyer of clamshells which were then used in the manufacturing of Mother-of-Pearl buttons.”  The family “eked out a bare living.”  About this time, son Carl went off to work for his uncle Jimmy Mattocks.

Beverly was issued social security number 358-12-0658 at Illinois.

In September 1941, the Mattocks family was at Winchester, Randolph County, Indiana, where Beverly operated a drag-line for his brother O.K.  From the fall of 1943 through the spring of 1944, the family were at Vermilion County, Illinois, where son Glenn (Pat) was attending school.  Beverly and Gladys’s son Donald died in September 1944 while serving in World War II in Belgium.

Early in June 1945, son Carl, who was serving in the military, visited his parents at Flat Rock.  Carl returned to his home to Ellettsville, Monroe County, Indiana, with a load of fish the family had given to him.  Carl planned on making another road trip shortly thereafter, when he intended to pick up his brother Pat and take him along with him.  Carl wrote, “Have Pat at the junction of highways 180 & 50 around 11 o’clock the morning of the 16th (Saturday).”

In 1946, the Mattocks family was at Heathsville.  A family photograph from that year showed a clam boat on the Wabash, River, a few miles north of Russellville, Lawrence County, Illinois, presumably belonging to Beverly.  In addition to an outboard motor, the boat had two poles on grooved posts running the length of each side, and supporting what seem to be nets.  A large “flap” behind the motor “was used to pull & steer boat thru clam beds.”

An undated and unidentified newspaper clipping reported that:

Pat [Glenn] Mattocks of Camp Breckenridge, Kentucky spent the weekend with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Beverly Mattocks and family.  He was taken back to camp Sunday by Roscoe Gaddis, Mary Mae and Leon Mattocks, Marie Gaddis and Betty Norton.

Sometime in 1949 the family moved to Douglas, Cochise County, Arizona, in hopes of the weather improving Beverly’s health.  They didn’t stay long and, late in the year, the Mattocks family moved once again, this time to the vicinity of Osceola, St. Clair County, Missouri.  Dorothy McCullough, who loved her Mattocks
relatives, wrote: “When they moved to Osceola we were so glad.”

When Beverly’s mother died in June 1952, Beverly was a resident of Lowry City, St. Clair County.

There is a photograph of Gladys with her brother Gene and sister Mary Ellen.  In this picture, Gladys had long, dark hair, and was wearing a white, over-the-knee buttoned dress with short sleeves and a narrow belt, along with a long necklace.

At Osceola, Gladys addressed a letter to her son Leon on Sunday, 13 October 1957:

My dear boy:

Sunday night is just about to close, so guess I better get your letter going.  I have five squirrels in the tenderizer on the stove.  Pat [son Glenn] & Dad went out to the Snyder farm early this morning — I got up at 20 til 4 — & they awaited daylight at the old Snyder house.  Pat sure tickles me, he says he didn’t know whether it was the leaves falling or squirrels flying they were so thick.  He got your car home Fri-nite Oct-11th.  Sure has a swell job of painting, and that bent place is invisible, all the chrome beautifully polished, you know I always loved that car and just to look out & see it really does me lots of good.  Gene’s didn’t get here this week end, first they have missed in a long time.  Jerry left his new 410 gun for Pat to murder squirrels and Gene left his rifle, altho Dad prefers the old 16 ga.  Dad took some things out to the sale barn for Gene this last week & has some more for this week — Thurs/ comming.  I went along & got almost a bushel of pears for 25¢ and some good eating apples.  I wrapped each pear individual in paper & have them put away for future use as you know they were green.  Have lots of them canned.  Sure seems nice when Pat can be home with us — he has a nice little car and keeps it as clean & neat. Dad sold an gas heater — when Gene brot it down it was for natural gas & dad converted it into Butane, I think what we paid Gene & was out repair on it cost us $8.00 and he sold it for $25.00 but we are going to get another fuel oil stove as we realize the gas out of those bottles are much to expensive — We already have a small one he bought and it will care for part of the house.  Well I may write more later but right now I must put supper on the table, Pat goes back to-morrow — guess he wont be back before pay day but says he is going after those squirrels if the snow is on.  Hope the weather is good there.  We surely have been blessed with sunshine.  Mr & Mrs Wingate were here to see us, you know they use to run the Brown Ford-Camp — Saw Mr & Mrs Beatty, they are building a room he got his soldier pay or social security I don’t know which since Aug — & are they tickled.  Saw Mr. Donabrook & their two boys they sure have grown, run their Dad’s tractors and I would of never known them.  Well I hear the men stirring around so I guess I’d better stop — Be a good boy & your car is safe at home.

Bye & God Careth for you—



Gladys died 24 November 1957 at Osceola, St. Clair County, Missouri.  She was buried 29 November following at Brooking Cemetery in Raytown, Jackson County, Missouri.  The Mattocks children attended their mother’s funeral.  Gladys’s daughter Allene also attended the ceremony.  Gladys had owned a Bible, in which she recorded some genealogical information, which came into the possession of her son Carl.

Beverly’s son Pat, who had moved to Kansas City, Jackson County, Missouri, often came to visit his father in Osceola and, with his friend Robert M. Finley, would hunt in the area.  Finley left a 22-caliber rifle at Beverly’s home.

Some time in or shortly after October 1958, Beverly moved to Galveston, Galveston County, Texas.  Beverly was living at Galveston when his son Glenn (Pat) committed suicide in May 1959.

From 1959 to 1964, Beverly was at Galveston and a patient of Dr. E. Sinks McLarty, Jr.  During that time, Beverly was diagnosed with benign prostatic hypertrophy, left inguinal hernia, advanced arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and marked emphysema.

On 4 August 1964, Beverly attached a note to the certificate he had received from President John F. Kennedy honoring the memory of Beverly’s son Glenn.  At that time, Beverly wrote of the certificate:

Aug-4-1964  AT-MY-DEATH  Please mail — To My son LEON MATTOCKS — If he can be located As I do not know his whereabouts at this writting.  Last known residence — Kansas City-Mo. 2840-Raytown Rd.

On 8 June 1965, Forrest B. Goodrich, of the Goodrich Funeral Home in Osceola, wrote a letter of recommendation for Beverly:

To Whom This May Concern:

This is to certify that I have known B.E Mattocks since 1949 and have found him to be honest, truthful, industrious and reliable in every sense.

During his stay here from 1949 to 1957 he made a multitude of friends who would endorse this statement,


Forrest B. Goodrich

For a time, Beverly lived with his son Leon and Leon’s family (which included the author of this skecth).  I remember that Beverly lived in a room in the basement which had been set up as a small apartment, with a bed, chair, table, refrigerator, and stove.  While he was living with us, my grandfather was in charge of cutting the hair of my brothers and me.  He also taught us all the art of weaving fish nets using a shuttle made from a wooden ruler.

Beverly next moved to Apartment 11 at 1928 Grant Street in Denver, Colorado.  A neighbor and friend was Irma Bachir, who lived with her pet fish and birds in Apartment 22.  The apartment building was apparently somewhat rundown, infested with insects and in need of carpet and paint.  According to Irma, several residents of the building had financial, drinking, and health problems.  Irma thought that Beverly “was the best neighbor.”

In late summer of 1970, Beverly returned to Galveston, though not in the best of health.  He wrote to Irma upon his arrival, and she wrote back on 25 September 1970, “hope you are ok at this writing still think the trip was to [sic] much for you.”  Irma also wrote that it would take time for Beverly to find an apartment, “but rest for wk. or two maybe you feel better.”  Irma hoped that he would find an apartment soon as “its not good eat out these Café put much salt in food[.]  You have tell not put Salt by orders Dr.”  Apparently Beverly had expected to find an old friend in Galveston, but had discovered on his arrival that he had died.

From 18 January to 3 February 1971, Beverly was an impatient at St. Mary’s Hospital at 404 Eighth Street, Galveston.  Medicare covered most of his expenses.  About September 1971, Beverly’s niece Polly Norton wrote to her uncle from Douglas, Arizona.

Dear Uncle Beverly,

I’m glad you are out of the hospital but so sorry you aren’t feeling too good.  I know how tiring it is to write a lot of letters.  So I had an idea.  If you write to Vera she will keep me advised about you.  She is so good to write every week or ten days.  But I will still write you because I know when I was sick I still liked to get letters even if it was a job to answer.  Besides, I think of you so often and think so much of you I want to write.

When you get stronger again maybe you will feel like writing more.  In the meantime just write Vera….

Lots of love


About the same time, Beverly’s niece Lola Jordan wrote back to Beverly from Calumet City, Cook County, Illinois.

It was real nice to get your letter, I’m happy you’re well enough to be out of the hospital, suppose you have to take it pretty easy now.  Yes, its my hope and prayer that you, Dad, and all I love can live your life out without suffering and sorrow.  Perhaps you’ll both live several years yet and I wish them to be as happy as possible.

It was really great Uncle Elwyn & family stopped to see you….

Hope you’re improving daily — What does the Dr. say about you?

Beverly, aged 80, died 20 October 1971 at St. Mary’s Hospital in Galveston County.  A letter of Dr. E. Sinks McLarty, Sr., of the McLarty Clinic in Galveston, dated 23 December 1971, to Beverly’s daughter-in-law Betty Mattocks, a nurse, spoke of Beverly’s last days.

Dear Mrs. Mattocks:

Sister Gertrude of St. Mary’s Hospital requested that I write you concerning your father-in-law, Mr. Beverly Mattocks.

He came to my office on 10-8-71 in great discomfort, stating that his urine had “blocked” and he was forced to go to the emergency room at John Sealy Hospital for catherization the previous day.  I admitted him to St. Mary’s Hospital immediately and called Dr. E. I. Klein, Urologist, to take care of him.

Mr. Mattocks had been a patient of my son from 1959 through 1964.  Diagnosis at that time was:  Benign prostatic hypertrophy.  Left inguinal hernia, reducible; advanced arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and marked emphysema.

After being hospitalized general blood work was done; heart tracing and xrays of his chest.  The anesthetic department deemed it safe to do a spinal block and Dr. Klein then did a trans-urethral resection.  His convalescence postoperatively was excellent.  About eight or ten days later I found that he was having anginal pains which he had not told us about.  On the morning of the 19th of October I found that he had nitroglycerin tablets with him and in order not to bother the nurses he told me that he had taken about 20 tablets off and on during the night.  One of the hospital aides told me this also.  At that time I took all medicine from him and kept a close watch on him but he suffered an acute coronary and died 24 hours later.

I was indeed sorry that I did not get to see any of the family and I sincerely hope this will explain his illness to you.

Sincerely yours,

Sinks McLarty

E. S. McLarty, M.D.

Beverly’s funeral services were handled by the Todd Funeral Home of De Motte, Jasper County, Indiana.  Presiding at the funeral at 2:00 p.m. on the Saturday after Beverly’s death, was the Reverend Emmitt L. Wallace.  Beverly was buried at the Wheatfield Cemetery in Wheatfield, Jasper County, Indiana.  At his death, he was described as a retired drainage contractor.

In April 2001, Dorothy McCullough wrote to me that “Gladys and Beverly Mattocks were my beloved aunt and uncle.”  Apparently Dorothy and her siblings considered Beverly and Gladys as their “favorite relation.”  “Aunt Gladys and my sister were very close as sisters and we all enjoyed many happy times to gether.”  Dorothy also wrote: “When they [Beverly and Gladys] lived in Illinois, we used every excuse to visit with them, and after Gil & I married [in 1940] we did the same.”

Children of Beverly Earl and Gladys Deema (Danner) Mattocks:

+    4.1.  Beverly Earl, born 25 May 1918.
+    4.2.  Carl Kenneth, born 29 November 1919.
+    4.3.  Earl Edward, born 16 April 1921.
+    4.4.  Donald Elwyn, born 27 October 1923.
+    4.5.  Norma Eloise, born 3 May 1925.
+    4.6.  Mary Mae, born in 1926.
+    4.7.  Walter Lee, born 16 September 1928.
+    4.8.  Glenn Oliver, born 29 October 1929.
+    4.9.  ——, male.
+    4.10.  Chauncey Leon [2], born 19 April 1934.
+    4.11.  Paul Eugene, born in the spring of 1935.

Daughter of James and Gladys Deema (Danner) Vickers:

+    5.a.  Helen Allene, born 24 September 1916.


  • 1900 United States Census, Clay County, Missouri, page 127B (T623-849).
  • 1900 United States Census, Newton County, Indiana, pages 316B-317A (T623-394).
  • 1910 United States Census, Bates County, Missouri, page 148 (T624-768).
  • 1910 United States Census, Porter County, Indiana, page 155 (T624-374).
  • 1920 United States Census, Bates County, Missouri, page 144 (T625-905).
  • 1920 United States Census, Jasper County, Indiana, page 138 (T625-440).
  • 1930 United States Census, Atchison County, Missouri, page 34 (T626-1175).
  • —, “The Examiner: Obituaries 10/25/02,” at, from The [Independence, Missouri] Examiner, transcribed 17 February 2003.
  • —, “Find Couple Slain in a Locked Room,” unidentified Kansas City, Missouri, newspaper clipping (17 May 1959), page 3A, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • —, “Former Wheatfield Area Resident Dies,” Rensselaer [Indiana] Republican (22 October 1971).
  • —, “Identifies Death Rifle,” Kansas City Star (18 May 1959), page 5.
  • —, “Kankakee Valley Genealogical Society: Master Cemetery Index,” at, created 13 March 2000.
  • —, “Missouri State Archives – Death Records Certificates [Beverly Maddocks],” at, accessed 17 January 2007.
  • —, “Missouri State Archives – Death Records Certificates [Lena Petersdorf Mattocks],” at, accessed 17 January 2007.
  • —, “Missouri State Archives – Death Records Certificates [Norma S. Mattocks],” at, accessed 17 January2007.
  • —, “Missouri State Archives – Death Records Certificates [Walter Lee Mattocks],” at, accessed 17 January 2007.
  • —, “[Obituary of Rachel Idella Mattocks],” copy of unidentified newspaper clipping circa June 1952, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • —, certificate honoring the memory of Glenn O. Mattocks, signed by John F. Kennedy, with notation on back by Beverly Earl Mattocks, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • —, Certificate of Registration, Barbers, State Board of Examiners of Illinois, Number 18143, for B.E. Mattocks, 25 September 1913, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • —, The [Lowry City High School] Echo 1951 (Kansas City, Missouri: Inter-Collegiate Press, 1951).
  • —, The [Lowry City High School] Echo 1950 (1950).
  • —, Mattocks Memorial Package, a genealogical report prepared for Carl Kenneth Mattocks by an unidentified genealogist (circa 1989), (some pages contain the heading “Birchwood – Simsbury Printery”).
  • —, Medicare Hospital Insurance Benefits Record, Form SSA-1533 (10-69), for Beverly E. Mattocks, 26 March 1971, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • —, memorial card for Beverly Earl Mattocks (died 20 October 1971), from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • —, Six Weeks Report, Vermilion County [Illinois] Public Schools, for Glen Mattocks, 1943-1944, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • —, unidentified and undated newspaper clipping from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Irma Bachar to B.E. Mattocks, letter, 25 September 1970, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “FamilySearch Internet – Search,” at, accessed 18 May 2004, Social Security Death Index, SSN 358-12-0658.
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, “Family Search Internet Genealogy Service,” at, submitted, at least in part, by Mary Fran Downey, accessed 22 February 2000.
  • Glenn R. Fackler to Carl K. Mattocks, letter, 18 December 1971, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Ma Fisk (Lola Jordan), “Memories of Grandpa’s Fish Camp,” Illinois Sports Outdoors (February 1997), page 22.
  • Forrest B. Goodrich to “Whom This May Concern,” letter, 8 June 1965, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Lola (Leverenz) Jordan to Chauncey Leon and Carol Lee “Suzi” Mattocks, letter, 1 January 1997.
  • Lola (Leverenz) Jordan to Gregg Leon Mattocks, letter, 13 April 1997.
  • Lola (Leverenz) Jordan to Bev E. Mattocks, letter, postmarked 2 September 1971, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Linda Lohrum, “RootsWeb’s WorldConnect Project: Ashford and Danner Family Tree,” at, created 5 February 2006.
  • Carl K. Mattocks to Pat Mattocks, letter, postmarked 14 June 1945, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Carl Kenneth Mattocks, genealogical information from the research of Carl Kenneth Mattocks.
  • Carl Kenneth Mattocks to Gregg Leon Mattocks, letter, 3 June 1999.
  • Carl Kenneth Mattocks to Mark Raymond Mattocks, letter, 15 October 1996.
  • Carl Kenneth Mattocks to Mark Raymond Mattocks, letter and accompanying photograph, 20 February 2002.
  • Carol Lee Mattocks, photograph collection.
  • Carol Lee Mattocks to Gregg Leon Mattocks, e-mail, 12 April 2005.
  • Gladys Deema Mattocks to Chauncey Leon Mattocks, letter, 13 October 1957, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Leon Mattocks, The Outstanding Points of my Life (unpublished school paper, 1949), from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Dorothy F. McCullough to Gregg Leon Mattocks, letter, postmarked 21 May 2001.
  • Dorothy McCullough to Gregg Leon Mattocks, e-mail, 22 April 2001.
  • Dorothy McCullough, “Bates Co. Mo Query Forum,” at, posted 28 January 2000.
  • Dorothy McCullough, “RootsWeb Message Boards – Message [ Bates ]” at, posted 28 January 2000.
  • E. Sinks McLarty to Betty Mattocks, letter, 23 December 1971, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Polly Norton to Beverly Mattocks, letter, postmarked 2 September 1971, from the papers of Carol Lee Mattocks.
  • Porter County Public Library System, “Obituary Index,” at, an index to obituaries published in The Vidette-Messenger (to 1994) and The Vidette-Times (1995-present) of Valparaiso, Indiana, accessed 7 April 2005.